Animal Dermatology Clinic of BC

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Certified Specialist in Skin, Ear, Hair, Nail and Allergies

Seborrheic & Breed Disorders

Abnormal Skin Formation (Keratinization)

Seborrhea, describes skin which is dry, dull, lusterless hair coat, excessive scaling (dandruff), scaly and crusty, greasy, smelly patches.

Most cases of seborrhea are secondary to other disease like allergies and infections. However if it starts in the first year of life it can be primary seborrhea.

Primary seborrhea is a hereditary disorder of skin formation (keratinization). The highest incidence is in American Cocker Spaniels, English Springer Spaniels, West highland White Terriers and Bassett hounds.

Vitamin A – Responsive Dermatosis of American cocker Spaniel

Focal areas of crusting and scale forming plugs or discrete patches. Occurs almost exclusively in 2-3 year old American cocker spaniels.


Ichthyosis

Ichthyosis is another congenital defect in skin formation (keratinization) which covers the body with large accumulations of scale (dead skin) in large sheets. In the first year of life it may effect Westhighland White Terriers, Golden Retreivers, Cavalier King charles Spaniels, Doberman Pincers, Jack Russell Terriers, Norfolk Terriers and Yorkshire Terriers.


Sebaceous Adenitits

Mild to severe scaling, localized, multifocal or generalized. In short or long hair coated breeds. Highest occurrence is in young to middle aged Standard Poodles, Hungarian vizslas, Akitas and Samoyeds.


Zinc Responsive Dermatosis

Zinc responsive dermatosis is a zinc deficiency induced disorder of skin formation (keratinization). An inherent diminished ability to absorb zinc from the intestinal tract. It occurs mostly in adult northern breeds, Siberian Huskies, Samoyeds and Alaskan Malamutes. Crusting, scaling and hair loss around the eyes, mouth, muzzle, nose, ears, genitals, elbows, stifles and other pressure points.


Schnauzer Comedone Syndrome

Schnauzer Comedone Syndrome is an acne-like disorder of formation of hair follicle keratin comedones or blackheads and crusted papules are found on the back.


Hereditary Nasal Parakeratosis of Labrador Retrievers

Crusts and scabs form on the nose of Labrador Retrievers between 6-12 months of age.


Hair Loss Associated with Breeds


  • Alopecia X- Generalized hairloss which may be due to adrenal sex hormone imbalance or local follicle receptor dysregulation. Most common at 2-5 years of age especially in Chow Chow’s, Pomeranians, Keeshounds, Samoyeds, Alaskan Malamutes, Siberian Huskies and Mini Poodles.
  • Color Dilution Alopecia (color mutant alopecia)- This is a hair follicle dysplasia of hairs associated with defective pigmentation and formation. It is common in color-dilute dogs such as those bred to blue (dilutions of black) or fawn (dilutions of brown). The disorder is especially common in Doberman Pincers but also occur in other breeds including, Yorkshire Terriers, Minature Pincers, Great Danes, Whippets, Italian Greyhounds, Salukis, Chow Chows, Dachshunds, Silky Terriers, Boston Terriers, Newfoundlands, Bernese Mountain Dogs, Shetland Sheepdogs, Schipperkes, Chihuahuas, Poodles and Irish Setters. Dogs appear normal at birth, but start losing hair over the back and trunk between 6 months and 2 years.
  • Black Hair Follicular Dysplasia- This disorder is a color linked follicular dysplasia of black hairs that is associated with defective hair pigmentation and formation. Puppies are normal at birth but begin losing hair at 1 month of age. Only black hairs are lost.
  • Canine Pattern Baldness- Unknown cause hairloss disorder mostly of Dachshunds but also occurs in other short haired breeds Chihuahuas, Whippets, Manchester terriers, Boston Terriers, Boxers, Greyhounds. Hair loss usually starts in late puberty to early adult hood. The symmetrical hair loss usually affects the ears, around the ears, thighs, neck, chest and abdomen.
  • Canine Recurrent Flank Alopecia- This disorder is a seasonal recurrent follicular dysplasia. Hair is usually lost between November and then regrows in the summer. Hair loss occurs on both flanks of mostly adult Boxers, Bulldogs, Airedales, and Schnauzers.
  • Canine Follicular Dysplasia- This is a disorder of hair follicle development that affects young to middle aged dogs. The breeds mostly affected are Irish Water Spaniels, Portuguese Water Dogs, Black or Red Dobermans, Weimaraners, and Pont-Audemer Spaniels.

In a study of dogs in northern California conducted at the University of California at Davis, 31 breeds were found to be at elevated risk for skin diseases, including Doberman pinscher, Irish setter, Dalmatian, Dachshund, Golden Retriever, various terrier breeds, Shar pei, Chow Chow, and Akita. In the same study, decreased risk of skin disease was found for dogs of mixed breeding and for 12 purebred breeds, including St. Bernard, Standard Poodle, Beagle, Basset Hound, German Shorthaired Pointer, Afghan Hound, and Australian Shepherd.


Breed predilection determines the incidence of some skin disorders, see below for some examples. Breeds in (brackets) are popular mixes of the primary breed that may or may not be affected by the same predilection.


Cats:

Abyssinian Follicular dysplasia
  Idiopathic ceruminous Otitis externa
  Psycogenic dermatitis or alopecia
   
Himalayan Cheyletiellosis
 

Dermatophytosis (microsporum canis)

  Idiopathic facial dermatitis
  Primary Seborrhea
   
Persian Cheyletiellosis
  Dermatophytosis
 

Facial fold intertrigo

 

Hair mats

 

Idiopathic facial dermatitis

 

Seborrhea, primary

   
Rex Hypotrichosis
   
Siamese cat Food hypersensitivity
  Hypotrichosis
  Periocular leukotrichia
  Psycogenic dermatitis or alopecia
  Vitiligo
   

Dogs:

Afghan hound Hypothyroidism
   
Airedale Adult-onset demodicosis
  Atopy
  Demodicosis
  Follicular dysplasia, flank
   
Akita  

Pemphigus Foliaceus

  Sebaceous adenitis
  Uveodermatologic syndrome
   
Basenji            Immunoproliferative enteropathy
   
Bassett hound

Atopy

  Masassezia dermatitis
  Seborrhea, primary
  Skin fold intertrigo
   
Beagle (Puggle)

Atopy

  Demodicosis
  Imunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency
   
Belgian sheepdog Sebaceous adenitits
 

Vitiligo

   
Berger de Beauce Epidermolysis bullosa
   
Borzoi

Hypothyroidism

   
Boston terrier

Atopy

 

Demodicosis

  Facial fold intertrigo
  Hyperadrenocorticism
  Patterned alopecia
  Tail fold intertrigo
   
Boxer 

Atopy

 

Demodicosis

  Food Allergy
  Follicular dysplasia (flank)
 

Hyperadrenocorticism

 

Hypothyroidism

  Muzzle furunculosis, bacterial
  Pedal furunculosis, bacterial
  Sertoli cell syndrome
  Solar dermatitis (white dogs)
  Sterile pyogranuloma syndrome
 

Sternal callus

   
Brittany spaniel

Complement deficiency

  Discoid lupus erythematosus
 

Hypothyroidism

   
Bullmastiff and Mastiff Folliculitis and furunculosis, bacterial
 

Atopy

  Furunculosis, scarring and bacterial
  Lethal acrodermatitis
  Solar dermatitis
  Zinc-responsive dermatosis
   
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Syringohydromelia
   
Chesapeake Bay Retriever

Atopy

  Folliculitis and furunculosis, bacterial
   
Chihuahua Demodicosis
  Pinnal thrombovascular necrosis
   
Chow Chow Adrenal sex hormone abnormalities
  Pemphigus Foliaceus
  Color dilution alopecia
  Demodicosis
  Hyposomatotropism
 

Hypothyroidism

  Uveodermatologic syndrome
   
Collie   Bullous pemphigoid
  Dermatomyositis
 

Discoid lupus erythematosus

  Nasal furunculosis, bacterial
  Pemphigus erythematosus
  Pyotraumatic dermatitis
  Sertoli cell syndrome
  Systemic lupus erythematosus
  Vesticular cutaneous lupus erythematosus
   
Curly-coated retriever Follicular dysplasia
   
Dachshund Acanthosis nigricans
 

Alopecia areata

  Color dilution alopecia
  Demodicosis
  Folliculitis and pedal furunculosis, bacterial
 

Hyperadrenocorticism

  Hypothyroidism
  Idiopathic onychodystrophy
  Juvenile cellulitis
  Linear IgA pustular dermatosis
  Malassezia dermatitis
  Nodular panniculitis (sterile)
  Pattern alopecia (ears & ventral)
  Pemphigus Foliaceus
 

Sterile pyogranuloma syndrome

  Sternal callus
  Vasculitis (idiopathic)
   
Dalmatian

Atopy

 

Demodicosis

  Drug reactions
  Folliculitis and furunculosis, bacterial
  Solar Dermatitis
   
Doberman pinscher Acral furunculosis, bacterial
  Acral lick dermatitis
  Color dilution alopecia
  Demodicosis
 

Drug reaction (sulfas)

  Flank sucking
  Follicular dysplasia
  Folliculitis and pedal furunculosis, bacterial
 

Hypothyroidism

  Muzzle furunculosis, bacterial
 

Vitiligo

   
Dogue de Bordeaux Hereditary footpad hyperkeratosis
  Sterile pyogranuloma syndrome
   
English Bulldog

Atopy

  Demodicosis
  Facial fold intertrigo
  Folliculitis and pedal furunculosis, bacterial
  Follicular dysplasia (flank)
  Hypothyroidism
  Malassezia dermatitis
  Muzzle furunculosis, bacterial
  Sterile pyogranuloma syndrome
  Tail fold intertrigo
   
German Shepherd Atopy
  Cellulitis (folliculitis and furunculosis), bacterial
  Collage disorder of footpads
  Contact hypersensitivity
 

Discoid lupus erythematosus

  Erythema multiforme
  Familial vasculopathy
  Flea bite hypersensitivity
  Fly dermatitis of ear tips
  Food allergy
  Lupoid onychodystrophy
  Insect or arachnid-related eosinophilic furunculosis (face)
  Medullary trichomalacia
  Metatarsal fistulae
  Mucocutaneous bacterial Pyoderma
  Nasal furunculosis, bacterial
  Otitis Externa 
  Pemphigus erythematosus
  Pituitary dwarfism
  Pythiosis
  Seborrhea, primary
  Systemic lupus erythematosus
  Vitilgo
   
Golden Retriever (goldendoodle) Acral furunculosis, bacterial
  Acral lick dermatitis
  Atopy
  Folliculitis and furunculosis, bacterial
 

Hypothyroidism

  Juvenile cellulitis
  Nasal hypopigmentation
  Pyotraumatic dermatitis
  Pyotraumatic folliculitis and furunculosis, bacterial
  Sterile pyogranuloma syndrome
 

Trichoptilosis

   
Gordon Setter

Atopy

  Hypothyroidism
  Juvenile cellulitis
   
Great Dane Acral furunculosis, bacterial
 

Acral lick dermatitis

  Callus formation, hygroma
  Demodicosis
  Hypothyroidism
  Muzzle furunculosis, bacterial
  Pedal furunculosis, bacterial
  Solar dermatosis in Harlequin
  Sterile pyogranuloma syndrome
   
Great Pyrenees

Demodicosis

  Pyotraumatic dermatitis
   
Greyhound

Drug reactions

 

Vasculopathy

   
Irish Setter Acral furunculosis, bacterial
 

Atopy

  Acral lick dermatitis
  Color dilution alopecia
  Folliculitis and furunculosis, bacterial
  Granulocytopathy
 

Hypothyroidism

  Seborrhea, primary
   
Irish water spaniel

Follicular dysplasia

  Idiopathic onychodystrophy
   
Irish wolfhound Elbow hygroma
  Hypothyroidism
   
Keeshond

Adrenal hyperplasia syndrome

  Hypogonadism of intact male
 

Hyposomatotropism

  Hypothyroidism
   
Labrador retriever (Labradoodle)

Acral furunculosis, bacterial

  Acral lick dermatitis
  Atopy
  Familial nasal hyperkeratosis
  Folliculitis and furunculosis, bacterial
  Food allergy
  Pyotraumatic dermatitis
  Seborrhea, primary
 

Waterline disease (Malassezia dermatitis?)

   
Lhasa apso (Lhasapoo) Atopy
  Injection reaction
  Malassezia dermatitis
   
Malamute Demodicosis
 

Hypothyroidism

  Zinc-responsive dermatosis
   
Newfoundland            Folliculitis and furunculosis, bacterial
  Hypothyroidism
  Pemphigus Foliaceus
  Pyotraumatic dermatitis
   
Old English sheepdog

Atopy

  Demodicosis
  Drug reactions
 

Pedal furunculosis, bacterial

   
Pekingese (pekapoo)

Facial fold intertrigo

  Injection reactions
  Sertoli cell syndrome
   
Pointers Acral mutilation
  Demodicosis
  Epidermolysis bullosa
  Exfoliative cutaneous lupus erythematosus
  Follicular dysplasia (flank)
  Nasal and muzzle folliculitis
   
Pomeranians Adrenal sex hormone abnormalities
  Hyposomatotropism
  Injection reactions
   

Poodle (Multipoo, Goldendoodle,
Schnoodle, Labradoodle,
cockapoo, lhasapoo, yorkipoo,
pekapoo)

Ectodermal defect

 
 
 
 

Epiphora

 

Hyperadrenocorticism

 

Hyposomatotropism

  Hypothyroidism
 

Injection reactions

  Otitis Externa
  Sebaceous adenitis (standard)
   
Portuguese water dog

Follicular dysplasia

   
Pug (Puggle)

Facial fold and tail fold intertrigo

   
Rhodesian Ridgeback

Dermoid sinus in midline of back

   
Rottweiler Folliculitis and furunculosis, bacterial
  Follicular lipidosis
  Follicular parakeratosis
  Idiopathic vasculitis
 

Vitiligo

   
Samoyed Adrenal hyperplasia syndrome
  Hyposomatotropism
  Sebaceous adenitis
  Uveodermatologic syndrome
   
Schipperke Pemphigus Foliaceus
   
Shar pei

Atopy

 

Demodicosis

  Fold intertrigo
  Folliculitis, bacterial
  Food hypersensitivity
  Hypothyroidism
 

Idiopathic mucinosis

 

IgA deficiency

   
Schnauzer, minature (Schnoodle)

Atopy

 

Aurotrichia

 

Drug reaction

  Follicular dysplasia (flank)
 

Hypothyroidism

 

Pseudohermaphroditism

  Schnauzer comedo syndrome
  Subcorneal pustular dermatosis
  Superficial suppurative necrolytic dermatitis
   
Shetland sheepdog

Dermatomyositis

 

Discoid lupus erythematosus

 

Drug reaction

  Folliculitis, bacterial
 

Sertoli cell syndrome

  Systemic lupus erythematosus
  Vesticular cutaneous lupus erythematosus
   
Shih tzu  

Atopy

 

Malassezia dermatitis

   
Siberian husky Discoid lupus erythematosus
 

Eosinophilic granuloma

 

Follicular dysplasia

  Hypogonadism in intact male
  Idiopathic onychodystrophy
  Uveodermatologic syndrome
 

Zinc responsive dermatosis

   
Spaniels= Cocker & Springer (cockapoo) Acral mutilation –English Springer
 
  Atopy- American Cocker
  Cutaneous asthenia- English Springer
  Food Allergy
 

Hypothyroidism

  Idiopathic onychodystrophy- Springer
  Lip fold intertrigo
  Malassezia dermatitis
 

Otitis Externa (especially proliferative)

 

Psoriasiform-lichenoid dermatosis- English Springer

 

Seborrhea, primary

 

Vitamin A responsive dermatosis- Cocker

   
St. Bernard     

Acral lick dermatitis

  Folliculitis and furunculosis, bacterial
  Pyotraumatic dermatitis
   

Terriers:

 
Cairn  

Atopy

 

Sertoli cell syndrome

   
Irish Hereditary footpad hyperkeratosis
   
Jack Russell Atopy
  Demodicosis
  Dermatophytosis (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, var. erinacei)
  Vasculitis
   
Kerry Blue Footpad keratoses (corns)
 

Otitis Externa

 

Spiculosis

   
Scottish

Atopy

 

Demodicosis

  Folliculitis and furunculosis, bacterial
  Hereditary nasal pyogranuloma and vasculitis
   
West Highland White

Atopy

 

Demodicosis

  Epidermal dysplasia
 

Ichthyosis

 

Malassezia dermatitis

  Seborrhea, primary
   
Wire-haired fox

Atopy

   
Yorkshire (Yorkipoo) 

Color dilution alopecia

  Dermatophytosis (m. canis)
 

Injection reactions

 

Melanoderma and alopecia

  Traction alopecia
   
Visla    Sebaceous adenitis
   
Weimeraner

Demodicosis

  Muzzle furunculosis
  Sertoli cell syndrome
 

Sterile pyogranuloma syndrome

   
Whippet

Idiopathic onychodystrophy


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